Environmental Engineering II Notes Civil 6th Semester Notes, CE 6605 Environmental Engineering II Notes Lecture Notes. Anna University Civil 6th Semester Notes and syllabus are downloading. Regulation 2013 as well we provided important 2 marks and 16 marks questions with answer for all units. Here you will get notes for all units.
Environmental Engineering II Notes Civil 6th Semester Notes
CE 6601 Environmental Engineering II Notes for free download. If this average demand is supplied at all the times, it will not be sufficient to meet the fluctuations.
Seasonal variation: The demand peaks during summer. Firebreak outs are generally more in summer, increasing demand. So, there is seasonal variation.
Daily variation depends on the activity. People draw out more water on Sundays and Festival days, thus increasing demand on these days.
Hourly variations are very important as they have a wide range. During active household working hours i.e. from six to ten in the morning and four to eight in the evening, the bulk of the daily requirement is taken. During other hours the requirement is negligible. Moreover, if a fire breaks out, a huge quantity of water is required to be supplied during short duration, necessitating the need for a maximum rate of hourly supply.
So, an adequate quantity of water must be available to meet the peak demand. To meet all the fluctuations, the supply pipes, service reservoirs and distribution pipes must be properly proportioned. The water is supplied by pumping directly and the pumps and distribution system must be designed to meet the peak demand. The effect of monthly variation influences the design of storage reservoirs and the hourly variations influences the design of pumps and service reservoirs. As the population decreases, the fluctuation rate increases
The basic function of the intake structure is to help in safely withdrawing water from the source over predetermined pool levels and then to discharge this water into the withdrawal conduit (normally called intake conduit), through which it flows up to water treatment plant.
There are two stages in the transportation of water:
- Conveyance of water from the source to the treatment
- Conveyance of treated water from treatment plant to the distribution
In the first stage water is transported by gravity or by pumping or by the combined action of both, depending upon the relative elevations of the treatment plant and the source of supply.
In the second stage water transmission may be either by pumping into an overhead tank and then supplying by gravity or by pumping directly into the water-main for distribution.
Free Flow System
In this system, the surface of water in the conveying section flows freely due to gravity. In such a conduit the hydraulic gradient line coincide with the water surface and is parallel to the bed of the conduit. It is often necessary to construct very long conveying sections, to suit the slope of the existing ground. The sections used for free-flow are: Canals, flumes, grade aqueducts and grade tunnels.
In pressure conduits, which are closed conduits, the water flows under pressure above the atmospheric pressure. The bed or invert of the conduit in pressure flows is thus independent of the grade of the hydraulic gradient line and can, therefore, follow the natural available ground surface thus requiring lesser length of conduit.
pressure aqueducts may be in the form of closed pipes or closed aqueducts and tunnels called pressure aqueducts or pressure tunnels designed for the pressure likely to come on them. Due to their circular shapes, every pressure conduit is generally termed as a pressure pipe. When a pressure pipe drops beneath a valley, stream, or some other depression, it is called a depressed pipe or an inverted siphon.
Depending upon the construction material, the pressure pipes are of following types: Cast iron, steel, R.C.C, Hume steel, vitrified clay, asbestos cement, wrought iron, copper, brass and lead, plastic, and glass reinforced plastic pipes.
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